Friendly, A. (2019). "Sharing the Unearned Increment: Divergent Outcomes in Toronto and São Paulo." Land Use Policy https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2019.104270. Abstract Land value capture (LVC) refers to the public sector’s recovery of part or all of the land value increments (‘unearned’ income) generated by actions other than the landowner’s direct investment, including public investments in infrastructure or administrative changes in land use norms and regulations. LVC is increasingly used around the world as a tool to raise funds for urban development. This paper analyzes two LVC tools, one used in Toronto and the other in São Paulo, to show how different approaches produce divergent outcomes in practice. Expert interviews and an analysis of secondary quantitative data show that São Paulo’s formula-led approach is bureaucratized, compared with Toronto’s politicized process and that benefits from Toronto’s Section 37 are primarily located in the central wealthier neighbourhoods, while in São Paulo benefits are more dispersed. The comparison between the two cases highlights different approaches that reflect divergent values, rationales, socio-economic realities and political cultures which ultimately produce varied outcomes. The contrasting tools’ distributional and equity outcomes in Toronto and São Paulo raise questions about how cities can best share the benefits of urbanization to ensure equity and justice for all city residents.
van Noorloos, F., Cirolia, L. R., Friendly, A., Jukur, S., Schramm, S., Steel, G. & Valenzuela, L. (2019). "Incremental housing as a node for intersecting flows of city-making: rethinking the housing shortage in the global South." Environment & Urbanization DOI: 10.1177/0956247819887679. Abstract Incremental housing drives urbanization worldwide, and is recognized as the basis for socially relevant solutions to housing shortages in the global South. However, scholarship on incremental housing continues to focus largely on tenure, building materials and housing conditions at a local level, while incremental housing is embedded in – and dependent on – larger urban and regional systems and flows. We argue that a further reconceptualization of incremental housing is needed that acknowledges the embeddedness of local incremental building practices within broader industries, markets and practices of city-making. Starting from this observation, we suggest an extended framework for understanding the city-wide industries and flows around incremental housing, in relation to five dimensions: 1) land, 2) finance, 3) infrastructure, 4) building materials and 5) labour. Mapping these dynamics is necessary to understand fundamental questions of where, how and why initiatives aimed at improving or developing incremental housing advance or get stuck.
Abstract: There has been considerable attention on Brazil's experience in applying the right to the city, influencing the urban reform movement and subsequent legislation in eluding the 1988 Constitution and the 2001 Statute of the City. While much is known about Brazil's urban transformation, this article views this trajectory within debates on social citizenship, expanding the focus to show that property is integral to this debate. Through the lens of social citizenship, property rights and insurgency, this article traces Brazil's right to the city debate through a focus on three issues: (1) the rights dimension of such debates; (2) the role of the social function of property in urban legislation; and (3) the role of insurgent planning evident in urban social movements. While property rights and land rights are often distanced from debates on social citizenship, the Brazil case provides evidence in which the two are clearly intertwined.
Abstract: Despite the broad celebration of Brazil's urban reform movement, recent events in Brazil have called attention to a paradox focused on the disappointing results of this movement to deal with Brazil's complex urban context. Taking this 'impasse' as a starting point, this article focuses on the role of politics and its relationship to economic interests in urban development in which much decision-making around urban policy takes place to understand why Brazil's progressive legislation has not succeeded in creating a more just and equitable urban environment. Use a case study of the city of Niterói, I show that patterns of state and non-state actors are connected through both formal and informal relationships, while connections between public and private actors have a considerable impact on urban politics and policies. Focusing on the limits of participatory processes in Niterói, I call attention to the contradictions of participatory planning in Brazil.
Abstract: The Brazilian urban reform movement expanded citizen participation in decision-making pro- cesses through a policy environment motivated by a right to the city (RTC), a collective development strategy for political transformation. Yet recent events evidence that social exclusion and spatial segregation remain dominant features of the Brazilian city. These contradictions have led planning scholars and practitioners to grapple with misalignment between the reform movement’s paradigmatic goals and its paradoxical failures. We build upon this genre of thinking to assess critical areas of paradigm and paradox in Brazilian planning – insurgent urbanism, informality and knowledge – each of which is rooted in the lesser-understood concept of autogestão for improving the equity of land division through urban planning. Although not all inclusive of the issues faced by Brazilian cities, these three categories were selected for best representing how Brazil’s participatory turn established a range of paradigmatic and paradoxical conditions that can help us to understand cities in Brazil and beyond and might better leverage autogestão in the future.
Abstract: With globalization and the decline of nation states, cities have become more important economically and po- litically around the world. As this trend has established itself, city leaders – and particularly their elected mayors– have assumed greater importance as political actors. In important respects they are avatars of local politics. This significance is visible in the local context, but more city mayors are operating at the local, national and international levels. The paper looks at the local political motivations for this trend, focusing on two factors: local constituency influences, and attempts to strengthen important local policy directions. Given the wider scope of elected mayors in a more globalized world, what are the implications for our understanding of local politics?
Stren, R. & Friendly, A. (2019). "Toronto and São Paulo: Cities and International Diplomacy."Urban Affairs Review 55(2): 375-404. Abstract: With globalization, the largest cities in the world have been growing in economic importance. And their local powers have often been enhanced as a result of decentralization reforms over the past two decades. In this context, cities – and particularly their mayors – have been reaching out to other cities and jurisdictions to pursue a variety of goals. One term for this process is “paradiplomacy” but most of the literature on the subject gives little attention to the local political dynamics behind these initiatives. In this paper we explore these local dynamics through a comparison of two major cities, Toronto, Canada, and São Paulo, Brazil. The cases show that external initiatives, both in scope and direction, vary according to the political strategies of the elected mayors. These strategies are strongly affected by the local context and by the political logic of mayoral leadership.
Abstract: Community service-learning (CSL) has gained popularity over the past decades in universities across North America. Although planning programs tend to involve more graduate-level community-engaged learning than other professional disciplines, learning outcomes have not been sufficiently examined. Based on a review of existing literature and analysis from four years of a CSL course at the University of Toronto’s Department of Geography and Planning, this article describes the implications of CSL for graduate planning education. We argue that CSL in graduate planning programs has a series of unique characteristics and thus requires distinctive pedagogical approaches.
Friendly, A. (2017). “Urban Policy, Social Movements and the Right to the City in Brazil.”Latin American Perspectives 44(2): 132-148. Abstract:Brazilian urban social movements have played a key role in bringing about change in urban policy since the 1980s and in light of the widespread protests across the country in June 2013. This insurgency and the urban reform movement of the 1980s and 1990s exemplify waves of mobilization and demobilization, signaling positive change at the level of praxis. More recent events have highlighted challenges for Brazil’s political left.
Abstract: In the context of urban poverty in Brazil, this paper considers the national context of civil society starting in the 1950s through to the approval of the Statute of the City in 2001. Focusing on a case study of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, I unpack the perception of a declining civil society in that city. Yet rather than taking a retraction of civil society at face value, I make the case for alterations within civil society and the role of the political context.
Abstract: In Brazil, a country notorious for its spatially segregated, unequal cities, a 2001 federal law recognizes the “right to the city” and mandates participation in planning processes, aiming to achieve social justice. Planning theory has dealt extensively with the “right to the city”, but critical examination of the implementation of this law – the Statute of the City – is lacking. Drawing on the ideals of Lefebvre and the global “right to the city” movement, I contribute to the theoretical debate on the right to the city, connecting this discussion to an analysis of the practice of applying this ideal in Brazil. I examine the challenges of implementing this innovative policy in Niterói (Rio de Janeiro State), showing that a more nuanced approach is needed to understand Brazil's unique right to the city experience.