The Statute of the Metropolis and Planning Reform in Brazil: Analyzing Community Participatory Visioning, Land Use Planning Practices and Effective Institutional Changes
This research, funded by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy's Program on Latin America and the Caribbean, compares land use planning practices in metropolitan regions before and after the approval of Brazil's 2015 law known as the 'Statute of the Metropolis.' This law has made advances in regulating the constitution of regional and regional public policies across Brazil, providing a window of opportunity for both municipal and state governments as well as civil society entities to organize themselves to elaborate metropolitan plans (known as integrated urban development plans). In some cases, such activities extend already-existing development of cities' local master plans, following the guidelines of an earlier law known as the Statute of the City, approved in 2001. Overall, the research aims to analyze the initial institutional effects of the Statute of the Metropolis in three Brazilian metropolitan regions to understand whether its adoption has changed planning practices in some regions of Brazil.
Land Value Capture and Social Benefits: Toronto and São Paulo Compared
This research compares land value capture in São Paulo, Brazil and Toronto, Canada. LVC refers to the public sector’s recovery of part or all of the land value increments through taxes, fees, exactions or through improvements to benefit the community. While privately-held land often increases in value due to public investments in infrastructure, economic development, changes in land use or population growth, a justice-oriented rationale holds that such profit should belong to all city inhabitants. In São Paulo, a tool called outorga onerosa do direito de construir (OODC) allows developers to pay for development rights in exchange for social goods and local urban services. In Toronto, the tool known as Section 37 allows developers to trade development rights for cash or in-kind contributions. When viewed from the perspective land value capture, the case of OODCin São Paulo provides an interesting juxtaposition to the case of Section 37 in Toronto. Using land value capture, municipalities may both promote social benefits and gain a strategy to further urban development and infrastructure.